$HEPA Share recycling using a prime brokerage: You have X number of shares in Account A. You sell X number of shares to Account B. Report it to the exchange. Move the shares back via instant transfer back to Account A. Report the "Transaction price" to the exchange, or do an instant transfer. shares are now back to account A. Repeating this process brings the net p/l of both accounts to 0, but its an easy way to downtick or uptick the stock without dipping into the liquidity pool. The SEC enforcement ends at US borders. Its very easy to do this via off-shore entities provided there is enough money (100 mil+ ) to open a prime brokerage account.